Print
Assessment of deciduous trees introduction prospect in the taiga zone (Karelia)
expand article infoIT Kishchenko
‡ Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk, Russia
Open Access

Abstract

The article aimed at assessing introduction prospect for 32 species of the genera Acer L., Betula L., Fraxinus L., Padus Mill., Syringa L. and Sorbus L. at the Botanical Gardens of Petrozavodsk State University (Southern Karelia, central taiga subzone). The degree of introduction prospect was assessed with the use of the integral assessment method by P. I. Lapin and S. V. Sidneva. Such indicators as annual maturing of shoots, regular growth of axial shoots, winter hardiness of plants, habit preservation, shoot-forming capability, generative reproduction capability, capability to reproduce in plantation were taken into account. It was found that Acer ginnala, Acer platanoides, Betula platyphylla, Betula ulmifolia, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus virginiana, Padus pensylvanica, Padus maackii, Syringa vulgaris, Syringa pubescens, Syringa emodi, Syringa × henryi, Syringa josikaea, Syringa villosa, Syringa vulgaris var. Congo, Sorbus decora, Sorbus virginianis and Sorbus аmericana have the highest prospect rates (80–100 points), the other studied species – fairly high prospect rates (56–79 points). All the studied introduced species of deciduous trees can be successfully used in Karelia for gardening and landscaping purposes. Acer platanoides, Betula platyphylla, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus pensylvanica, Padus maackii, Syringa vulgaris и Sorbus decora show the highest degree of introduction prospect (about100 points).

Keywords

Acer, Betula, introduction, Fraxinus, Padus, Sorbus, Syringa, woody plants

Introduction

Most indigenous species of woody plants in the taiga zone of Russia are known to be extremely sensitive to progressive environmental pollution. At the same time, many species of deciduous trees from other geographical regions are fairly tolerant to pollution of air with gas and smoke and notable for their longevity (Plotnikova 1983; Vstovskaya 1983; Lapin 1987; Catalog… 2010; Hatch 2018). Besides, many of these species are characterized by much higher productivity than the local ones and quite often capable of naturalization (Lukin 1977; Kalutsky and Bolotov 1983; Mamaev and Makhiev 1996; Botenkov and Popova 1997). According to many scientists (Bazilevskaya 1964; Bradshaw 1995; Mamaev and Makhiev 1996; Isaev et al. 1997; Budantsev et al. 2004; Houtman 2004.), biological diversity of natural and artificial phytocenoses may be increased only due to woody plants introduction. All this suggests that deciduous woody plants introduction and its prospects assessment are required. The latter can be determined only on the basis of comprehensive study of the test plants adaptation in new conditions (Bazilevskaya 1964; Bulygin and Vekshin 2004; Baryshnikova and Arestova 2008; Loskutov 2008a; Loskutov 2008b; Vstovskaya 2012; Belyuchenko 2014; Alekhin and Shestak 2017).

The studies aimed at assessing introduction prospects for deciduous woody plants. There is no record of any earlier studies of this kind in Karelia.

Materials and methods

The studies were carried out at the Botanical Gardens of Petrozavodsk State University located in the central taiga subzone, in the absence of air pollution (61°47’N, 34°20’E). The subjects of the studies were plants of six species of Acer L. (A. negundo L., A. ginnala Maxim., A. platanoides L., A. pseudoplatanus L., A. semenovii Rgl. et Herd., Acer tataricum L.), 6 species and 1 form of genus Betula L. [B. pubescens Ehrh., B. pendula Roth, В. pendula Roht. var. carelica (Merckl.) Hamet-Ahti, В. lutea Michx., B. mandshurica Rgl., B. platyphylla Sukacz., B. ulmifolia Siebold et Zucc.], 3 species of genus Fraxinus L. (F. excelsior L., F. americana L., F. pennsylvanica Marsh.), species of genus Padus L. [P. avium Mill., P. maackii (Rupr.) Kom., P. virginiana (L.) Mill., P. pensylvanica (L. f.) Sok.], 5 species, 2 hybrids and 1 cultivar of the genus Siringa L. [S. vulgaris L., S. pubescens subsp. microphylla (Diels) M.S. Chang & X.L. Chen, S. emodi Wall. ex Royle., S. × henryi Schneid., S. josikaeа Jacq. ex Rheb. f., S. villosa Vahl, S. vulgaris var. Congo Lemoine], 8 species of genus Sorbus L (S. аucuparia L., S. hybrida L., S. decora L., S. sibirica Hedl. L., S. virginiana Mill., S. americana Marsh., S. amurensis Koehne., S. discolor Maxim.) (Cherepanov 1995). Trees were planted at the age of 6–8 years, 15–30 specimen of each. A description of the study subjects is provided in Table 1.

Characteristics of objects

Species and form Place of origin of seedlings, city Age, years old
Acer negundo St. Petersburg 51
A. ginnala St. Petersburg 46
A. platanoides St. Petersburg 61
A. pseudoplatanus St. Petersburg 51
A. semenovii St. Petersburg 46
A. tataricum St. Petersburg 61
Betula pubescens Petrozavodsk (indigenous species) 45
B. pendula Petrozavodsk (indigenous species) 42
В. pendula var. carelica Petrozavodsk (indigenous species) 18
В. lutea Arkhangelsk 18
B. mandshurica St. Petersburg 44
B. platyphylla St. Petersburg 44
B. ulmifolia St. Petersburg 44
Fraxinus excelsior St. Petersburg 54
F. americana St. Petersburg 40
F. pennsylvanica St. Petersburg 40
Padus maackii St. Petersburg 48
P. virginiana St. Petersburg 61
P. pensylvanica St. Petersburg 51
P. avium Petrozavodsk (indigenous species) 50
Syringa vulgaris Kiev 51
S. vulgaris var. Congo Moscow 53
S. pubescens Moscow 53
S. emodi Moscow 53
S. × henryi Moscow 51
S. josikaea Moscow 63
S. villosa Moscow 51
Sorbus aucuparia Petrozavodsk (indigenous species) 50
S. hybrida St. Petersburg 37
S. decora Minsk 21
S. sibirica St. Petersburg 41
S. virginiana St. Petersburg 42
S. americana St. Petersburg 45
S. amurensis St. Petersburg 43
S. discolor Arkhangelsk 41

Prospects of the plants introduction were assessed in points with the use of the methods by P. I. Lapin and S. V. Sidneva (Lapin and Sidneva 1973). We took into account indicators such aslignification shoots, winter hardiness, preservation habitus, conducive ability, increase in height, the ability to generative development, opportunity breeding in culture breeding in culture.

Results

Annual maturing of shoots is one of the most important indicators of successful introduction characterizing successful wintering. It is mainly determined by shoot stiffening degree, development of plug, waxy bloom, fuzz and shoot protection degree. Maximum grade is 20 points (Table 2).

Evaluation of the prospects for the introduction of deciduous trees, scores

Species Lignification shoots Winter hardiness Preservation habitus Conduciveability Increase in height The ability to generative development Opportunity breeding in culture breeding in culture Overall Perspective Assessment
Acer ginnala 20 23 10 5 5 10 10 83
A. negundo 16 21 10 3 5 5 5 65
A. platanoides 20 25 10 5 5 20 10 95
A. pseudoplatanus 17 22 10 3 5 5 5 67
A. semenovii 16 21 10 3 5 5 5 65
A. tataricum 20 23 10 4 5 10 5 77
Вetula lutea 20 22 10 3 5 15 3 73
B. mandshurica 20 20 10 4 5 15 5 79
B. platyphylla 20 22 10 5 5 20 10 92
B. ulmifolia 20 25 10 5 5 20 10 90
Fraxinus excelsior 20 25 10 5 5 25 10 100
F. americana 20 5 10 3 5 25 10 78
F. pennsylvanica 20 5 10 3 5 25 10 78
Padus avium 18 25 10 5 4 25 10 97
P. virginiana 15 20 7 4 3 25 10 84
P. pensylvanica 19 25 10 5 5 25 10 99
P. maackii 17 25 10 5 4 25 10 96
Syringa vulgaris 20 25 10 5 5 25 10 100
S. pubescens 20 20 10 4 5 20 10 89
S. emodi 20 20 10 3 5 20 10 88
S. × henryi 20 20 10 3 5 20 10 88
S. josikaea 20 20 10 3 5 20 10 88
S. villosa 20 20 10 3 5 20 10 88
S. vulgaris var. congo 15 10 10 2 5 15 10 67
Sorbus hybrida 15 17 10 5 8 8 3 66
S. decora 20 22 10 5 10 20 5 92
S. sibirica 15 18 10 5 7 15 4 74
S. virginianis 18 20 10 5 8 20 5 86
S. americana 20 20 10 5 8 18 4 85
S. amurensis 13 14 10 5 6 10 4 62
S. discolor 12 13 10 5 6 8 4 58

The studies demonstrated that the majority of the studied species have maximum annual maturing of shoots or close to it, only Padus virginiana, Sorbus hybrida, Syringa vulgaris var. Сongo, Sorbus sibirica and Sorbus discolor have lower results of 12−15 points.

Winter hardiness of plants is the main indicator of successful woody plants introduction in the temperate zone where winter weather conditions often have a negative impact on the introduced plants. Maximum winter hardiness grade is 25 points. The lowest grade of 5–10 points was recorded for Fraxinus аmericana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Syringa vulgaris var. Сongo, the middle one of 13−18 points – for Sorbus hybrida, Sorbus sibirica, Sorbus amurensis and Sorbus discolor, all the other studied species were found to have the highest grade or close to it. Similar conclusion regarding Sorbus sibirica was previously drawn by O.V. Vvedenskaya (Vvedenskaya 2011).

Habit preservation characterizes plants capability to maintain to one degree or another the biologically inherent form of growth which is, on the whole, determined by their winter hardiness. The highest grade for habit preservation is 10 points. All species with the exception of Sorbus hybrida and Sorbus sibirica (7 points) preserve completely their habit. Similar conclusions regarding the introduced species Acer in the Bashkir Cis-Ural region were previously drawn by N. A. Ryazanova and V.P. Putenikhin (Ryazanova and Putenikhin 2010), in Siberia – I. A. Alekhin and K. V. Shestak (Alekhin and Shestak 2017), regarding Syringa – N. V. Polyakova (Polyakova 2016).

Shoot-forming capability of plants enables them to maintain the form of growth by ensuring its regeneration even after severe crown freezing. Maximum shoot-forming capability grade is 5 points. Lower shoot-forming capability grade (2−3 points) was documented for Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer semenovii, Вetula lutea, Fraxinus аmericana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Syringa emodi, Syringa × henryi, Syringa josikaea, Syringa villosa and Syringa vulgaris var. Сongo. All the other studied species were found to have the highest grade or close to it. In the Orenburg Cis-Ural region the high shoot-forming capability for the same species Syringa as in this study has been previously documented by N. M. Nazarova (Nazarova 2013).

Maximum grade of regular growth of axial shoots (5 points) was documented for all species with the exception of Padus avium, Padus virginiana and Padus maackii (3–4 points). E. A. Arestova (Arestova 2011) previously determined that the species Sorbus having the same names as those in the study had normal development cycle during the vegetation period in the city of Saratov.

Generative reproduction capability of plants is a highly important indicator for introduction assessment, since the selection of the most adapted species grown from the seeds of the local generation ensures successful plant acclimatization. Maximum grade of this capability is 25 points. The lowest generative reproduction capability (5−10 points) is typical of Acer ginnala, Acer negundo, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer semenovii, Acer tataricum, Sorbus hybrida и Sorbus discolor, middle one (15−18 points) – for Вetula lutea, Betula mandshurica, Syringa vulgaris var. Сongo, Sorbus sibirica and Sorbus аmericana, the highest one (20−25 points) – for the other species. In the Krasnoyarsk Region T.A. Karaseva (Karaseva 2004) also found generative reproduction capability for the introduced species Acer to be low.

Capability to reproduce in plantation by seeds show a high degree of plants adaptation to natural conditions of a new region and therefore practical relevance. Capability to reproduce in plantation has a maximum grade of 10 points. Acer negundo, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer semenovii, Acer tataricum, Вetula lutea, Betula mandshurica, Sorbus hybrida, Sorbus decora, Sorbus sibirica, Sorbus virginianis, Sorbus аmericana, Sorbus amurensis and Sorbus discolorwere found to reproduce poorly in plantation (3−5 points), the other studied species have high grades.

Discussion

The above data was used for a summary assessment of the introduction prospects with the maximum of 100 points. Acer ginnala, Acer platanoides, Betula platyphylla, Betula ulmifolia, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus virginiana, Padus pensylvanica, Padus maackii, Syringa vulgaris, Syringa pubescens, Syringa emodi, Syringa × henryi, Syringa josikaea, Syringa villosa, Sorbus decora, Sorbus virginianis and Sorbus аmericanawere found to have the highest prospect rates (80–100 points), whereas the other species have fairly high prospect rates (56–79 points). Similar data for the taiga zone was previously recorded by other researchers (Vstovskaya 1983; Plotnikova 1983; Botenkov and Bradshaw 1995; Popova 1997; Houtman 2004; Karaseva 2004; Baryshnikova and Arestova 2008; Polyakova 2016; Alekhin and Shestak 2017; Hatch 2018; http://www.jfschmidt.com/pdfs/JFS_New_2009.pdf).

Conclusion

All 32 studied species of deciduous woody plants introduced at the Botanical Gardens of Petrozavodsk State University show a high degree of introduction prospect and can be successfully used in settlements of the taiga zone for gardening and landscaping purposes. Acer platanoides, Betula platyphylla, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus pensylvanica, Padus maackii, Syringa vulgaris and Sorbus decora were found to have the highest degree of adaptation (about 100 points).

References

  • Alekhin IA, Shestak KV (2017) Introductive Perspective of Maples in Siberian Conditions. Plodovodstvo, semenovodstvo, introdukciya drevesnyh rastenij [Fruit Growing, Seed Breeding, and Introduction of Woody Plants] 20: 12−14. [In Russian]
  • Arestova EA (2011) Seasonal rhythm of development of Sorbus and Aronia L. species during the introduction in the city of Saratov. Nauchnye vedomosti – Seriya Estestvennye nauki [Scientific Gazette. A series of Natural Sciences] 9(104–15/1): 146–161. [In Russian]
  • Bazilevskaya NA (1964) Teoriya i metody introdukcii rastenij [Theory and methods of plant introduction]. Science, 130 pp. [In Russian]
  • Botenkov VN, Popova VE (1997) Introduction of highly productive rocks in Siberia. Lesnoe hozyajstvo [Forestry] 5: 1–44. [In Russian]
  • Bradshaw WRH (1996) 9th Annu. Meet Nord. Group Forest Genet. and Free Breed., Hallormsstadur (June 12–16, 1996). Buvisindi, 1995, no. 9, 7–115.
  • Budantsev LYu (1999) [Biological diversity of flora, different aspects – one task] Biologicheskoe raznoobrazie. Introdukciya rastenij. Mater. 2-j Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. (20–23 aprelya 1999 g.) [Biological diversity. Plant introduction. Mater 2nd International scientific conf. (April 20–23, 1999). SPb., 2−14. [In Russian]
  • Bulygin NYe, Vekshin AP (2004) Treeline introducers of the dendrarium of the control-seed station in the City of Pushkin. Hortus Botanicus 2: 42–48. https://doi.org/10.15393/j4.art.2003.1684 [In Russian]
  • Hatch LC (2007) Cultivars of Woody Plants. V. 1, A – G. TCR Press.
  • Houtman R (2004) Variegated Trees & Shrubs. Royal Boskoop Horticultural Society, Koninklijke Vereniging voor Boskoopse Culturen, 338 pp.
  • Isaev AS, Nosova LM, Puzachenko YuG (1997) Biological diversity of Russian forests – proposals for a program of actions Lesovedenie. Forest Science 2: 3–13. [In Russian]
  • Kalutsky KK, Bolotov NA (1983) Bioecological features of forest introduction. Lesnaya introdukciya [Forest introduction]. Science, Voronezh, 4–14. [In Russian]
  • Karaseva TA (2004) Phenological variability of 15 species of maple in the conditions of the introduction of the Barnaul Arboretum. Plodovodstvo, semenovodstvo, introdukciya drevesnyh rastenij. Krasnoyarsk: SibGTU [Fruit growing, seed production, introduction of woody plants. SibGTU, Krasnoyarsk, 77–82.
  • Lapin PI, Sidneva SV (1973) Evaluation of the prospects for the introduction of woody plants according to visual observations. Opyt introdukcii drevesnyh rastenij [Experience of introducing woody plants]. Science, Moscow, 7–68. [In Russian]
  • Lapin PI (1987) Seasonal rhythm of the development of woody plants and its importance for the introduction. [Byul. GBS AN SSSR [Bul. GBS AS USSR] 65: 12–18. [In Russian]
  • Loskutov RI (2008a) Growth and development of woody plants of the North American dendroflora in the arboretum of the Institute of Forest named after V.N. Sukachev of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Lesnaya taksaciya i lesoustrojstvo [Forest inventory and forest management] 1(39): 175−180. [In Russian]
  • Loskutov RI (2008b) Growth and development of dendroflora woody plants of the European part of Russia in the arboretum of the VN Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University Bulletin] 5: 150−154. [In Russian]
  • Lukin AV (1977) Integrated Estimation of the Perspectives of Coniferous Introducers for Central Black Soil Areas. Byul. GBS AN SSSR [Bul. GBS AS USSR] 104: 3–8. [In Russian]
  • Mamaev SA, Makhiev AK (1996) Problems of biological diversity and its maintenance in forest ecosystems. Lesovedenie [Forest Science] 5: 3–10. [In Russian]
  • Nazarova NM (2013) The variability of the annual growth of some species of lilac during the introduction in the conditions of the Orenburg Cis-Urals. Vestnik OGU [OGU Bulletin] 10(159): 202−204. [In Russian]
  • Plotnikova LS (1983) Nauchnye osnovy introdukcii i ohrany drevesnyh rastenij flory SSSR [Scientific basis for the introduction and protection of woody plants in the flora of the USSR]. Msc Thesis, Moscow, 52 pp. [In Russian]
  • Polyakova NV (2016) Integral assessment of the prospects of species of Syringa L. in the collection of the Ufa Botanical Garden. Izvestiya Ufimskogo nauchnogo centra RAN [News of the Ufa Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences] 3: 70−73. [In Russian]
  • Ryazanova NA, Putenikhin VP (2010) Integral assessment of the prospects for the introduction of maples in the Bashkir Pre-Urals. Vestnik VGU, Seriya: Geografiya. Geoekologiya [Vestnik VSU, Series: Geography. Geoecology] 2: 36−37.
  • Vstovskaya TN (1983) Introdukciya drevesnyh rastenij dal’nego Vostoka i Zapadnoj Sibiri [Introduction of woody plants in the Far East and Western Siberia]. Science, Novosibirsk, 196 pp. [In Russian]
  • Vstovskaya TN (2012) Decorative forms of birch (Betula), recommended for primary testing in the culture of Siberia. Rastitel’nyj mir Aziatskoj Rossii [Plant World of Asiatic Russia] 1(9): 119–126.
  • Vvedenskaya OV (2011) Biological features of Sorbus sibirica Hedl. (Rosaceae) in the conditions of introduction (Eastern Transbaikalia). Uchenye zapiski ZabGGPU [Uchenye zapiski ZabGGPU] 1(36): 38−43. [In Russian]